The Oral Clicks
15 of the clicks also occur in Zulu, yet are utilized much less regularly than in Xhosa. The 6 oral clicks are made with the tongue on the back of the teeth, as well as resemble the audio represented in English by "tut-tut" or "tsk-tsk" to reprimand somebody. The 2nd 6 are lateral, made by the tongue at the sides of the mouth, and are similar to the noise used to call horses. The staying 6 are alveolar, made with the idea of the tongue at the roofing of the mouth, and also audio rather like a cork drew from a bottle.
The adhering to table provides the consonant phonemes of the language, giving the enunciation in IPA on the left, and also the orthography on the right: Two added consonants, [r] and also [r̤], are found in borrowings. Both are led to r. 2 extra consonants, [ʒ] and [ʒ̈], are found in borrowings. Both are spelled zh. Two added consonants, [dz] and also [dz̤], are discovered in car loans. Both are led to dz. An extra consonant, [ŋ̈] is located in loans. It is led to ngh. In enhancement to the ejective affricate [tʃʼ], the punctuation tsh might additionally be made use of for either of the aspirated affricates [tsʰ] and [tʃʰ] The breathy voiced glottal fricative [ɦ] is sometimes led to h.
The ejectives tend to only be ejective in mindful enunciation or in prominent placements, as well as even then just for some speakers; elsewhere they have a tendency to be tenuis quits. In a similar way, the tenuis clicks are usually glottalised, with a lengthy voice start time, though this is unusual. The murmured clicks, plosives, as well as affricates are only partially voiced, with the complying with vowel murmured for some speakers. That is, da may be obvious [dʱa̤] They are much better explained as slack articulated than as breathy articulated. They are just genuinely articulated after nasals, though then the oral occlusion is really short in quits, as well as usually does not occur in any way in clicks, so that the absolute duration of articulating is the exact same as in tenuis stops. The even more salient characteristic is their depressor impact on the tone of the syllable.
Consonant modifications with prenasalisation. When consonants are prenasalised, their pronunciation as well as spelling might change. Murmur no longer shifts to the adhering to vowel. Fricatives end up being affricates, as well as if voiceless, come to be ejectives also, a minimum of with some speakers: mf is obvious [ɱp̪fʼ]; ndl is obvious [ndɮ]; n+hl becomes ntl [ntɬʼ]; n+z ends up being ndz [ndz], etc. The orthographic b in mb is a voiced plosive, [megabytes] When voiceless clicks c, x, q are prenasalised, a quiet letter k is included-- nkc, nkx, nkq-- so as to stop complication with the nasal clicks nc, nx, nq.
Anthem Nkosi Sikelel' iAfrika belongs to the national anthem of South Africa, national anthem of Tanzania and also Zambia, and also the former anthem of Zimbabwe and also Namibia. It is a Methodist hymn written in Xhosa by Enoch Sontonga in 1897. The initial stanza was: Nkosi, sikelel' iAfrika; Maluphakanyisw' uphondo lwayo; Yizwa imithandazo yethu Nkosi sikelela, thina lusapho lwayo. Lord, bless Africa; Might her horn increase high up; Hear Thou our prayers Lord, bless us, your family members. Added verses were created later by Sontonga and also various other writers, with the original verse converted right into Zulu, Sotho and Afrikaans, in addition to English.
See likewise Xhosa calendar Henry Hare Dugmore, the very first translator of the Scriptures into Xhosa U-Carmen eKhayelitsha, a 2005 Xhosa film adaptation of Bizet's Carmen UCLA Language Materials Task, an on-line job for teaching languages, including Xhosa. Referrals Outside web links Xhosa language profile PanAfrican L10n page on Xhosa Learn Xhosa Xhosa fundamental vocabulary at the Global Lexicostatistical Database.